Researches Involving Human Serum

Human serum is the name given to the human blood which does not contain fibrinogens and other blood clotting agents. The serum is produced by carefully removing the substances mentioned so that the final product which contains red blood cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages is used for research purposes. These researches mainly aim to produce human biological products which can be used to either study the conditions of a disease or produce biological products which can help cure a disease.

There are many organizations and institutes who collect serums and the biologicals contained in it from donations either pooled or individual. For this to happen, they need to have the authorization from FDA in the form of the license which they issue.

How is serum obtained?

As we stated earlier, the serum is collected by FDA licensed health institute which collects blood from the donors.

Based on the research type, the obtained blood is processed according to the FDA virology’s to ensure that each bleed contains human products according to the recommendations. After that, the serum can either be required in its natural unclogged state, or the researchers could want an off-the-clot serum.

In the former type, anticoagulants are added to the serum and also the natural coagulant agents are removed from it. However, in the off-the-clot serum, no anticoagulant is added and it is obtained from the blood that has been allowed to clot immediately after centrifugation.

Having said that, there are numerous researches where few specific components of the blood are not needed. For them, special serums are made. For example, the type AB serum is the one that does not contain anti-A or anti-B antibodies. This serum is used where the behavior of human blood is to be studied in low immuno-activity.

What are some of the researches performed?

The answer to this question can be a long one. This is because for new advancements to occur in the field of health sciences there are numerous researches that are carried out. Each of these requires human biologicals in one form or another. However, generalizing all those researches, they can be broadly put into three categories.

  • Immunohistochemical Staining

IHC or immunohistochemistry is the discipline which focuses on the applications of antibodies to know how a tissue reacts to a certain disease. Immunohistochemical staining is a technique in this discipline which contains the processes involved in studying the behavior of the cells. Due to the disadvantages of the cancer diagnosis and treatment preferences such as hematoxylin and eosin methods and MTT staining, the immunohistochemical staining is employed these days in searching for an effective diagnosis method and a viable cure of cancer.

  • Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing

Researchers use HLA to treat patients who receive a transplant from a donor. HLA are basically proteins which are present on all of the cells in our body. These markers are used by our immune system to recognize native cells. Any foreign bodies that enter our bloodstreamare easily recognized since they do not have the HLA markers. Thus, before or after the donation, the transplanted organ has to be treated with HLA Typing in order to eliminate any possibility of rejection by the body of the acceptor.

  • Researches Involving Cell Culture Media

Normally, these days, all researches that involve humans as a subject as well as an object of the research require human serum or biologicals. The reason why the use of animal sera has been rejected is the fact that under conditions where there is a need to have the cells of the immune system to play a part in the research, only the human sera can provide the researchers with appropriate and targeted research results.

Research and Ethics

From the above discussion, it can be acknowledged that the human biologicals or the human serum have an increased demand for fuelling important health researches around the world. However, before obtaining them, ethical considerations should be implemented.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.



The Significance of Platelets in Human Plasma

Have you been to a blood drive lately where you were asked to donate your blood plasma? The human plasma plays a crucial yet sometimes unrecognized job of carrying white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets throughout the body as the fluid in which they travel. These blood components are indeed essential to body function, but so is the plasma, which makes up about 55% of its contents along with water, salts, and enzymes.

Importance of Plasma

The human blood is a connective tissue that is made up of plasma and formed elements, which are is basically erythrocytes, leukocytes, and human platelets. The main role of human plasma is in the transportation of proteins, hormones, and nutrients to various parts of the body. It also helps in the removal of waste that is deposited by cells from the body, which is why plasma is a significant component in remedying various vital health problems.

In addition to carrying enzymes, amino acids, nitrogenous waste, nutrients, and gases, the human plasma also contain important components such as antibodies, the three major categories of plasma proteins, which are albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen. They are all the most abundant substances in play a cohesive role, including clotting, defense, transport, especially with patients suffering from burns, shock, trauma, as well as creating therapies for other rare medical conditions such as autoimmune disorders and hemophilia. The plasma proteins interact in specific ways to cause the blood to coagulate, and by so doing, it helps protect the body against the loss of blood and invasion by foreign microorganisms and viruses.

Functions Of Human Platelets

Human platelets, on the other hand, are tiny fragments of a large bone marrow cell called megakaryocytes. Even though they are not considered real cells because of how they look, they contain many edifices that are pivotal to halt bleeding. This is because of the presence of proteins on their surface that allows them to stick to each other and on to breaks in the blood vessel wall thus creating a temporary but firm plug to stop excessive bleeding. Human platelets also have the following functions;

  • They exude procoagulants to promote blood clotting
  • They produce growth factors to maintain the linings of blood vessels
  • Dissolve blood clots when they are no longer needed
  • They digest and destroy bacteria
  • Human platelets also emit vasoconstrictors, which tighten blood vessels, causing vascular contractions in damaged blood vessels

Important Roles Of Platelets

Three of the most important roles that human platelets play are vascular spasms, platelet plug formation, and blood coagulation. Which is why some women will experience heavy menstrual bleeding or children will have frequent nose bleeds and bleeding in the mouth and gums due to a platelet disorder or other medical conditions known to cause an abnormal platelet function such as some forms of leukemia, chronic kidney disease, or heart bypass surgery.

Therefore, if you are a blood type AB, which is in demand for plasma donation, you might save a life unknowingly by donating your blood today.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.

Human Serum Difference in Biological Research

Innovations are happening all around us and the progressive track of technology has enabled us to do so much that were previously considered impossible. From voice assistance to machines that can make decisions on their own, we’ve come a very long way. In the same manner, the innovations in biological sciences has boosted significantly. With better equipment and latest technologies, scientists have been able to unearth minute details of the human body, recreate tissues and synthetic materials. One such significant success in the biological sciences sector has been the extraction of human serum.

Where is Human Serum Used?

Human serum is widely used for various reasons from medical purposes to scientific research. It a useful fluid obtained from human blood after applying certain method of extraction, with useful properties beneficial most significantly in biological research.

The human serum is extracted from blood plasma after a factor fibrinogen and other similar clotting factors have been removed from it. This serum is most commonly used while researching immunity of human body and devising medicines and supplements that can boost the immune system. Another use of human serum includes usage in cell culture media, that is, synthetically growing cells and studying bacteria growth and resistance to medicines. Human Serum is more effective and provides a more feasible environment for cell growth in contrast to animal serum. A more particular usage is while working with immune cells like lymphocytes and macrophages.

Human serum can be extracted from individuals or pooled donors of serum which can be classified on the basis of sex, age and disease states, based on the requirement of your research.

Types of Human Serum:

There are different kinds of serums which differ in nature based on the use. For instance, off-the-clot serum is extracted from blood which has been left to clot spontaneously after the process of centrifugation. Note that, this doesn’t contain anticoagulants.

Another type of serum, known as type AB serum is used while studying immunoactivity. The reason for so is that it doesn’t contain in itself any interfering anti-A or anti-B antibodies that skew the observations of the experiments performed.

Complement human serum involves proteins which get activated on sequential basis when the antibodies in the blood get the chance to interact with the respective antigens. These proteins degrade very quickly if the storage and preparation methods are inadequate. To ensure optimal quality of the serum, it should be collected fresh and stored in cold temperatures.

Proper Care and Storage

We take special care in preparation and storage of human serums, because we understand how important it is for biological research. Accuracy of your research depends on the quality of the product and we ensure that we deliver the best. For more information and queries regarding our products, feel free to get in touch with us through email or our hotline number.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.

Research Involving Animal Serum

Animal testing has been an integral part of medicine to see how a given medical procedure will behave in the animal before carrying it out on humans. Although the application of research on the human is under strict control requiring high-level committee approval, humans as the test subject in biological research is a practice towards finding lasting solutions to human-related diseases and ailment since the beginning of quests into animal-related health solutions.

What is animal research?

Animal research defined is the research carried out, either to perform research for the benefits of humans or animals to understand the basic biology, or to understand basic biological nature of the targeted animal subject.

What is the purpose of animal research?

The purpose of animal research, therefore, stems from the need to find life-enhancing medical answers to human and animal medical issues to develop and understand the effect of chemicals on humans about tackling health challenges. Animal biological research material looks into new ways to understand diseases and how to carefully regulate the use of serum, e.g., monkey serum, in the control of human ailments.

One of the steps scientists take to carry out research involving animal is to identify the target part of the body to receive the serum; this is often a protein where the new medicine will work. The designated target area in the tissues, cells, animals, and human then studied to understand how the application of such research material will perform on such part of the animal.

Who performs animal research?

University health centers and a wide range of medical, scientific and pharmaceutical organizations and biotechnology companies and several other health and medical research groups and government are involved in carrying out research involving animals. The objective of such research will agree with what was discussed earlier in this article.

The use of animal biological research material such as monkey serum and others including microbes, cells, recombinant DNA, biological fluids, biological toxins, etc. on human and animal subjects for research purposes must get approval from the appropriate committee before application. This is because the oversight body has ethical obligations of ensuring the use of animal subjects in research is done responsibly. Therefore, there are established procedures in which animal biological research material are treated and identified in the approval appendixes to show the intended purpose before they are used.

Therefore, all teaching exercises and research studies relating to the use of biological materials including human cell lines, recombinant DNA technologies, microorganisms, human embryonic stem cells, viral vectors, viruses, and nano-particle based nucleic acid or drug delivery systems require approval from the relevant approving body before such test or research can commence. The purpose here is to protect animals and humans who are deemed to enjoy inalienable rights, but their approval as a research subject is done for the life-enhancing need to protect the majority of animals and humans whose lives may be endangered if such research is not approved to find best and lasting solutions to potential medical problems.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.

Amish Mutation Protects Against Diabetes and May Extend Life

The clinic parking lot in Berne, Ind., where some of the Amish residents carry a genetic mutation that may have life-extending benefits.CreditCourtesy of Indiana Hemophilia & Thrombosis Center

Amish people living in a rural part of Indiana have a rare genetic mutation that protects them from Type 2 diabetes and appears to significantly extend their life spans, according to a new study.

The findings, published on Wednesday in the journal Science Advances, shed light on the processes underlying cellular aging and could lead to new therapies for chronic diseases, some experts say. The researchers are planning at least one follow-up trial that will recreate the effects of the mutation so they can study its impact on obese people with insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes.

The mutation described in the new paper affects a mysterious protein called plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, or PAI-1, that is known primarily for its role in promoting blood clotting. The mutation was first identified in 1991 in a secluded Amish farming community in Berne, Ind. An estimated 5 percent of the community carries the mutation, which causes them to produce unusually low levels of PAI-1.

Scientists have long suspected that PAI-1 has other functions outside of clotting that relate to aging. Dr. Douglas Vaughan, a cardiologist at Northwestern medical school, noticed, for example, that mice that had been genetically engineered to produce high levels of the protein age fairly quickly, going bald and dying of heart attacks at young ages. People who have higher levels of the protein in their bloodstreams also tend to have higher rates of diabetes and other metabolic problems and to die earlier of cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Vaughan wondered how the Amish people in Berne who naturally produce smaller amounts of PAI-1 are affected. So two years ago he reached out to the community and asked if he could study them.

When they agreed, Dr. Vaughan took a team of 40 researchers to their town, set up testing stations in a recreation center, and spent two days doing extensive tests on 177 members of the community, many of whom arrived by horse and buggy. The researchers pored over birth and death records and took extensive genealogical histories. They drew blood, did ultrasounds of their hearts, and rigorously examined their cardiac and pulmonary function.

Some of the young men we collected blood from fainted because they had never had a needle stick in their life, said Dr. Vaughan, who is chairman of medicine at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. These people live sort of an 18th century lifestyle and generally dont take advantage of modern medicine. But they were so gracious and courteous and cooperative.

What Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues discovered was striking. Amish carriers of the mutation live on average to age 85, about 10 years longer than their peers. Among the Amish who did not have the mutation, the rate of Type 2 diabetes was 7 percent. But for carriers of the mutation, the rate was zero, despite leading the same lifestyle and consuming similar diets. Tests showed that carriers of the mutation had 28 percent lower levels of insulin, a hormone whose chronic elevation can lead to Type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes is something that develops more as we age, Dr. Vaughan said. This is a terrific indicator that the mutation actually protected them from a metabolic consequence of aging.

The carriers also appeared to be in better cardiovascular health, and they had 10 percent longer telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that are akin to the tips of shoelaces. Telomere length is seen as a barometer of biological aging, with longer telomeres linked to longevity.

Jan M. van Deursen, a molecular biologist and expert on aging at the Mayo Clinic, who was not involved in the new research, said the study was impressive and yielded intriguing insights.

I think its nice work, you dont see these types of studies that often, he said. The Amish are quite reserved, and its not that easy to get them to participate in a study like this. My hats off to them and to the researchers.

Although the exact mechanism is unclear, Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues believe that PAI-1 somehow helps accelerate the aging process. It could be that PAI-1 promotes insulin resistance and impairs glucose metabolism. Or the protein could work through senescent cells, which accumulate in aging tissues and cause inflammation. PAI-1 is one of the inflammatory agents that senescent cells typically secrete, and its possible that the Amish mutation disrupts that process.

The Indiana community has been involved in other research, includinga study last year that foundthat exposure to barnyard dust helps to protect children against asthma. Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues, including Dr. Amy Shapiro, a hematologist who first discovered the mutation, are hoping to do more studies with the Amish to see how the PAI-1 mutation affects cognitive function and other aspects of health.

A team at Tohoku University in Japan led by Dr. Toshio Miyata has developed a drug that inhibits PAI-1 and that, in an early trial, appears to be safe. Dr. Vaughan plans to seek permission from the Food and Drug Administration to start a trial in the United States as early as next year to examine the effects of using the drug to lower PAI-1 in people who are obese or insulin resistant.

The researchers say their goal is not to inhibit PAI-1 completely, because of the proteins essential role in clotting.

Amish men and women who inherit two copies of the PAI mutation, one from each parent, for example, produce no PAI-1 at all and develop a bleeding disorder similar to hemophilia. So-called carriers who inherit just one copy of the mutation, however, produce less PAI-1 than the average person but still have enough of it to avoid any obvious clotting disorders or other downsides.

We know that a complete deficiency state is not a good thing, said Dr. Shapiro, the co-medical director of the Indiana Hemophilia & Thrombosis Center. But weve shown that there is an advantage to having low levels like the way the carriers do.

Correction: November 16, 2017
An earlier version of this article misstated that insulin levels are chronically elevated in diabetes. They are chronically elevated in prediabetes, which can lead to full-blown Type 2 diabetes.

Original Source:

Original Date: November 15, 2017

Original Author: Anahad O’Connor

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The Research Process Involving Human and Animal Biologicals

What Are Biologicals?

Biologicals can be defined as pharmacological products utilized in healthcare research, diagnosis and prevention for treatment of diseases and observation of change in behavior of several different cells under different circumstances, when they come in come in contact with various biological agents. Biologicals are gathered from live cells or tissues like sera, vaccine, recombinant products, etc. and are used for potential therapeutic, diagnostics and research applications.

Medical and healthcare research, be it on animals or humans, requires the utilization of biologicals. Biologicals can be originated from animals such as animal blood, animal plasma, animal serum and animal tissues. Animal biological products for research purposes can be obtained from a wide range of animal species. Although, the human biological specimens such as human serum, human whole blood, etc., that used in research, originate from human bodies but are no longer a part of a living body. Human biologicals specimens and animal biological materials are at the core of basic research. Recently, a lot of work is being done around human and animal biologicals due to the enhanced growth rate that they provide for various cell culture mediums.

Use of Biologicals for Research Purposes:

Biological research encompasses several individual yet related, contained yet diverse fields of experimental biology, such as biotechnology, cell biology, cancer, evolutionary biology, genetics, genomics, immunology, microbiology, molecular biology, plant biology, physiology, stem cell research and systems biology. Whatever the subject of research, biologicals are essential for carrying out all sorts of biological phenomena.

Processes That Utilize Biologicals:

There can be several processes involved when it comes to biological research, for instance;

  • Creating new functions for proteins or RNA by manipulating the approach for choosing molecules with the same properties from a varied population.
  • The integration of cells into organs and tissues by medium and indicating molecules.
  • The Study of individual cells’ processes. This would include cell division, signal transduction and motility, organelle inheritance and biogenesis.
  • Studying the genetic, biochemical and molecular biological systems available for microorganisms so as to make them achieve particular desired ends.
  • Understanding the use of different molecular architectures to perform chemical reactions that are central to life.
  • Identifying molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell renewal and differentiation programs.
  • Investigating the roles of stem cells in regeneration along with the potential of stem cells for disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

We, at Innovative Research, realize how important it is to understand the value of time that can be saved in the transfer of biological materials such as animal serum, animal plasma, human blood, and more. Therefore, we provide you with best quality human biological research products that work perfectly with all cell cultures, their processing and manufacturing, by promoting and enhancing the cell growth rate. Along with human biological research products, we are also provider of animal biological research products. At Innovative Research, we always have fresh stock available and ready to be shipped to you as soon as you place your order. More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.


Cool Pool Industry Tool: An Underwater Drone

Sometimes it would be nice to inspect a main drain without all the scuba gear.

For such occasions, an underwater drone may be just the thing.

Several companies are producing consumer versions of the big, expensive unmanned underwater vehicles used for marine exploration. These smaller and comparatively cheaper units stream high-definition video to your smartphone or tablet – great for capturing footage of coral reefs or for gathering intel at your favorite fishing hole.

OpenROV in Berkeley, Calif. recently released the Trident, a mini submarine that can dive up to 100 meters and is equipped with a high-resolution camera. Likewise, Beijing-based Robosea raised more than $203,000 through Kickstarter for what it is touting as the world’s first wireless bionic fish. It’s called BIKI and features a 4K camera. Both products can be piloted with a smartphone app.

This technology can be more than fun – pool pros see their potential as investigative tools.

“If you’re trying to survey for cracks in the pool close up, you could use that as an option,” said Steve White, a certified diver and owner of Underwater Pool Masters in West Boylston, Mass. A self-described “pool scene investigator,” he’s frequently called upon by realtors to inspect pools for problems.

And for especially large commercial pools, he wouldn’t mind deploying the device to examine a hydrostatic valve or to see if the drain cover requires any attention.

“Maybe something like this could make some judgments,” he said.

Plus, an underwater drone could spare divers from inspecting pools when the water is less than inviting.

“When the water is below 45 degrees, a drone would be great,” said Mike Stinson, a certified diver operating as Mike the Poolman in Folsom, Calif. “But for water over 50 degrees, a diver in a wetsuit can accomplish more with less headaches of breakdowns, remotes, etc.”

Representatives of plaster companies may also find them useful for taking high-res images of defective surface materials.

The cost, however, gives pros pause. The devices retail for upwards of $1,000.

“How many 40-foot deep pools are out there to make a drone feasible? Not many,” Stinson said.

Until they make a drone that can repair rebar, patch plaster and remove drain covers, divers will always be in demand. If nothing else, these aquatic automatons are good for getting photos of underwater repair pros in action.

Original Source:

Original Author: Nate Traylor

The Significance of Harvesting Fetal Bovine Serum in Animal Biologicals

FBS, otherwise known as, Fetal Bovine Serum is fetal serum from a calf and is blood that is fractioned and remains once the blood is naturally coagulated and separated from the red blood cells by centrifugation. Fetal bovine serum is a product that is utilized in laboratories for research purposes. It is a blood product which surpasses cell culture testing standards and, therefore, is extensively used to promote growth medium.

First Step in Process

FBS is a dairy industry by-product. Just like the majority of other animal serum utilized in cell culture, Fetal Bovine Serum, is created from blood collected from commercial slaughterhouses. The first step of FBS production is the harvesting of blood from a bovine fetus with the help of a closed and isolated selection system. A cardiac puncture is performed on a calf’s fetus during slaughter and the blood is drawn from the bovine fetus after the fetus is removed from cow that has been killed. The blood is refrigerated so that it will clot.

Step 2- Filtration

A process known as centrifuge is then utilized to remove the fibrin clot and the remaining blood cells from the clear yellow (straw) colored serum and, finally, the clear serum is separated from the slotted blood cells. The second step involves filtration which employs a filtration chain with triple sterile 0.1 micrometer membrane filters. After being processed, the sterilized fetal bovine serum is subjected to strict quality control testing by a reputable commercial serum supplier. If the serum clears the quality control testing, it is supplied with a detailed Certificate of Analysis.

Significance of Fetal Bovine Serum

FBS is the most commonly used serum-supplement for the in-vitro cell culture of multi-cell organisms. The reason behind its extensive use is the serum’s low level of antibodies and its high content of embryonic growth promoting factors, which helps the serum to develop versatility in various cell culture applications. There are so many fields in which the cell culture medium growth is considered of great importance, like biotechnology, vaccine production, cloning and in-vitro fertilization. FBS when used in proper concentrations can satisfy specific metabolic requirements for the culture of cells and help it grow because of its high content of hormones, carrier proteins and macromolecular proteins. The embryonic stem cells are transferred, by FBS, into the culture medium which leads to growth of the cells.

Moreover, many vaccines available in the market today are produced using FBS for cell culture growth medium. For instance vaccines that protect against viruses utilize fetal bovine serum. Recently, several experiments are being conducted in an attempt to clone animal tissues and within the field of biotechnology; FBS is often employed in these experiments.

You will find that FBS is offered by several manufacturers in the market, and since cell growth in in-vitro is highly sensitive, customers prefer to check specific batches to ascertain for aptness for their specific cell culture under research. Here, at Innovative Research, we make sure that we provide you with only the highest quality fetal bovine serum and other products that you may need for research purposes. We ensure that we price our products affordably, without compromising on quality.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.

The Importance of Human Serum

The human blood is comprised of several important parts all with different purposes. Human blood is made up of plasma, human serum, red blood cells and white blood cells. Red blood cells are the cells that carry oxygen to all parts in the body while white blood cells are the cells that fight against diseases and foreign bodies.

Plasma and human serum are similar but the greatest difference is the clotting factors. Fibrinogen is a substance that is essential for blood clotting to take place. When human serum and plasma are separated from the blood, plasma retains the fibrinogen element while human serum constitutes the part of blood without fibrinogen.

Human serum thus constitutes water which is dissolved with hormones, minerals, proteins and carbon dioxide. Human serum is an important source of electrolytes.

Why is human blood split up?

When an individual donates blood, this blood is separated into different parts so that it can be given to different patients with specific needs. Blood is separated into red blood cells, white blood cells and proteins. Blood proteins constitute serum albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and plasma. For instance, if a patient is suffering from liver failure or has problems with blood clotting, he may receive blood plasma which has clotting factors. The human serum is the remainder of blood after the clotting factors of fibrinogen have been removed and it contains proteins such as albumin and globulins.

Functions of human serum

The human serum is a circulating carrier of exogenous and endogenous liquids in the blood. It allows substances to stick to the molecules within the serum and be buried within it. Human serum thus helps in the transportation of fatty acids and thyroid hormones which act on most of the cells found in the body.

Thyroid hormones are essential to the proper development and functioning of the body because they help to regulate bone growth and maturation, carry out protein synthesis and increase the body’s basal metabolic rate. Human serum also helps transport other hormones which are fat soluble.

Due to its unique role as a circulating carrier, human serum is used in the protein binding of many drugs to facilitate drug distribution within the body. Human serum is used to distribute antibiotics in the body and albumin allows the curable substances in the antibiotics to be bind and carried out throughout the body.

The human off-the-clot serum is the serum that has been allowed to coagulate naturally after collection and has not been exposed to any anticoagulants. The human off-the-clot serum is ideal for metabolic studies because it is available in the original transfer packs straight from individual donors.

Human AB serum is collected from type AB donors and it lacks antibodies against blood type A and B antigens. Human AB serum is used in cell therapy applications and transplantation and tissue engineering.

Human complement serum is a complex mixture of serum proteins which are activated when antibodies in an immune animal interact with corresponding antigens. Human complement serum is used for in vitro research only and biocompatibility experiments.

Innovative Research

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at or by calling 248.896.0145.