Research Involving Animal Serum

Animal testing has been an integral part of medicine to see how a given medical procedure will behave in the animal before carrying it out on humans. Although the application of research on the human is under strict control requiring high-level committee approval, humans as the test subject in biological research is a practice towards finding lasting solutions to human-related diseases and ailment since the beginning of quests into animal-related health solutions.

What is animal research?

Animal research defined is the research carried out, either to perform research for the benefits of humans or animals to understand the basic biology, or to understand basic biological nature of the targeted animal subject.

What is the purpose of animal research?

The purpose of animal research, therefore, stems from the need to find life-enhancing medical answers to human and animal medical issues to develop and understand the effect of chemicals on humans about tackling health challenges. Animal biological research material looks into new ways to understand diseases and how to carefully regulate the use of serum, e.g., monkey serum, in the control of human ailments.

One of the steps scientists take to carry out research involving animal is to identify the target part of the body to receive the serum; this is often a protein where the new medicine will work. The designated target area in the tissues, cells, animals, and human then studied to understand how the application of such research material will perform on such part of the animal.

Who performs animal research?

University health centers and a wide range of medical, scientific and pharmaceutical organizations and biotechnology companies and several other health and medical research groups and government are involved in carrying out research involving animals. The objective of such research will agree with what was discussed earlier in this article.

The use of animal biological research material such as monkey serum and others including microbes, cells, recombinant DNA, biological fluids, biological toxins, etc. on human and animal subjects for research purposes must get approval from the appropriate committee before application. This is because the oversight body has ethical obligations of ensuring the use of animal subjects in research is done responsibly. Therefore, there are established procedures in which animal biological research material are treated and identified in the approval appendixes to show the intended purpose before they are used.

Therefore, all teaching exercises and research studies relating to the use of biological materials including human cell lines, recombinant DNA technologies, microorganisms, human embryonic stem cells, viral vectors, viruses, and nano-particle based nucleic acid or drug delivery systems require approval from the relevant approving body before such test or research can commence. The purpose here is to protect animals and humans who are deemed to enjoy inalienable rights, but their approval as a research subject is done for the life-enhancing need to protect the majority of animals and humans whose lives may be endangered if such research is not approved to find best and lasting solutions to potential medical problems.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

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Amish Mutation Protects Against Diabetes and May Extend Life

The clinic parking lot in Berne, Ind., where some of the Amish residents carry a genetic mutation that may have life-extending benefits.CreditCourtesy of Indiana Hemophilia & Thrombosis Center

Amish people living in a rural part of Indiana have a rare genetic mutation that protects them from Type 2 diabetes and appears to significantly extend their life spans, according to a new study.

The findings, published on Wednesday in the journal Science Advances, shed light on the processes underlying cellular aging and could lead to new therapies for chronic diseases, some experts say. The researchers are planning at least one follow-up trial that will recreate the effects of the mutation so they can study its impact on obese people with insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes.

The mutation described in the new paper affects a mysterious protein called plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, or PAI-1, that is known primarily for its role in promoting blood clotting. The mutation was first identified in 1991 in a secluded Amish farming community in Berne, Ind. An estimated 5 percent of the community carries the mutation, which causes them to produce unusually low levels of PAI-1.

Scientists have long suspected that PAI-1 has other functions outside of clotting that relate to aging. Dr. Douglas Vaughan, a cardiologist at Northwestern medical school, noticed, for example, that mice that had been genetically engineered to produce high levels of the protein age fairly quickly, going bald and dying of heart attacks at young ages. People who have higher levels of the protein in their bloodstreams also tend to have higher rates of diabetes and other metabolic problems and to die earlier of cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Vaughan wondered how the Amish people in Berne who naturally produce smaller amounts of PAI-1 are affected. So two years ago he reached out to the community and asked if he could study them.

When they agreed, Dr. Vaughan took a team of 40 researchers to their town, set up testing stations in a recreation center, and spent two days doing extensive tests on 177 members of the community, many of whom arrived by horse and buggy. The researchers pored over birth and death records and took extensive genealogical histories. They drew blood, did ultrasounds of their hearts, and rigorously examined their cardiac and pulmonary function.

Some of the young men we collected blood from fainted because they had never had a needle stick in their life, said Dr. Vaughan, who is chairman of medicine at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. These people live sort of an 18th century lifestyle and generally dont take advantage of modern medicine. But they were so gracious and courteous and cooperative.

What Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues discovered was striking. Amish carriers of the mutation live on average to age 85, about 10 years longer than their peers. Among the Amish who did not have the mutation, the rate of Type 2 diabetes was 7 percent. But for carriers of the mutation, the rate was zero, despite leading the same lifestyle and consuming similar diets. Tests showed that carriers of the mutation had 28 percent lower levels of insulin, a hormone whose chronic elevation can lead to Type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes is something that develops more as we age, Dr. Vaughan said. This is a terrific indicator that the mutation actually protected them from a metabolic consequence of aging.

The carriers also appeared to be in better cardiovascular health, and they had 10 percent longer telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that are akin to the tips of shoelaces. Telomere length is seen as a barometer of biological aging, with longer telomeres linked to longevity.

Jan M. van Deursen, a molecular biologist and expert on aging at the Mayo Clinic, who was not involved in the new research, said the study was impressive and yielded intriguing insights.

I think its nice work, you dont see these types of studies that often, he said. The Amish are quite reserved, and its not that easy to get them to participate in a study like this. My hats off to them and to the researchers.

Although the exact mechanism is unclear, Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues believe that PAI-1 somehow helps accelerate the aging process. It could be that PAI-1 promotes insulin resistance and impairs glucose metabolism. Or the protein could work through senescent cells, which accumulate in aging tissues and cause inflammation. PAI-1 is one of the inflammatory agents that senescent cells typically secrete, and its possible that the Amish mutation disrupts that process.

The Indiana community has been involved in other research, includinga study last year that foundthat exposure to barnyard dust helps to protect children against asthma. Dr. Vaughan and his colleagues, including Dr. Amy Shapiro, a hematologist who first discovered the mutation, are hoping to do more studies with the Amish to see how the PAI-1 mutation affects cognitive function and other aspects of health.

A team at Tohoku University in Japan led by Dr. Toshio Miyata has developed a drug that inhibits PAI-1 and that, in an early trial, appears to be safe. Dr. Vaughan plans to seek permission from the Food and Drug Administration to start a trial in the United States as early as next year to examine the effects of using the drug to lower PAI-1 in people who are obese or insulin resistant.

The researchers say their goal is not to inhibit PAI-1 completely, because of the proteins essential role in clotting.

Amish men and women who inherit two copies of the PAI mutation, one from each parent, for example, produce no PAI-1 at all and develop a bleeding disorder similar to hemophilia. So-called carriers who inherit just one copy of the mutation, however, produce less PAI-1 than the average person but still have enough of it to avoid any obvious clotting disorders or other downsides.

We know that a complete deficiency state is not a good thing, said Dr. Shapiro, the co-medical director of the Indiana Hemophilia & Thrombosis Center. But weve shown that there is an advantage to having low levels like the way the carriers do.

Correction: November 16, 2017
An earlier version of this article misstated that insulin levels are chronically elevated in diabetes. They are chronically elevated in prediabetes, which can lead to full-blown Type 2 diabetes.

Original Source:https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/15/well/live/amish-mutation-protects-against-diabetes-and-may-extend-life.html

Original Date: November 15, 2017

Original Author: Anahad O’Connor

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The Research Process Involving Human and Animal Biologicals

What Are Biologicals?

Biologicals can be defined as pharmacological products utilized in healthcare research, diagnosis and prevention for treatment of diseases and observation of change in behavior of several different cells under different circumstances, when they come in come in contact with various biological agents. Biologicals are gathered from live cells or tissues like sera, vaccine, recombinant products, etc. and are used for potential therapeutic, diagnostics and research applications.

Medical and healthcare research, be it on animals or humans, requires the utilization of biologicals. Biologicals can be originated from animals such as animal blood, animal plasma, animal serum and animal tissues. Animal biological products for research purposes can be obtained from a wide range of animal species. Although, the human biological specimens such as human serum, human whole blood, etc., that used in research, originate from human bodies but are no longer a part of a living body. Human biologicals specimens and animal biological materials are at the core of basic research. Recently, a lot of work is being done around human and animal biologicals due to the enhanced growth rate that they provide for various cell culture mediums.

Use of Biologicals for Research Purposes:

Biological research encompasses several individual yet related, contained yet diverse fields of experimental biology, such as biotechnology, cell biology, cancer, evolutionary biology, genetics, genomics, immunology, microbiology, molecular biology, plant biology, physiology, stem cell research and systems biology. Whatever the subject of research, biologicals are essential for carrying out all sorts of biological phenomena.

Processes That Utilize Biologicals:

There can be several processes involved when it comes to biological research, for instance;

  • Creating new functions for proteins or RNA by manipulating the approach for choosing molecules with the same properties from a varied population.
  • The integration of cells into organs and tissues by medium and indicating molecules.
  • The Study of individual cells’ processes. This would include cell division, signal transduction and motility, organelle inheritance and biogenesis.
  • Studying the genetic, biochemical and molecular biological systems available for microorganisms so as to make them achieve particular desired ends.
  • Understanding the use of different molecular architectures to perform chemical reactions that are central to life.
  • Identifying molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell renewal and differentiation programs.
  • Investigating the roles of stem cells in regeneration along with the potential of stem cells for disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

We, at Innovative Research, realize how important it is to understand the value of time that can be saved in the transfer of biological materials such as animal serum, animal plasma, human blood, and more. Therefore, we provide you with best quality human biological research products that work perfectly with all cell cultures, their processing and manufacturing, by promoting and enhancing the cell growth rate. Along with human biological research products, we are also provider of animal biological research products. At Innovative Research, we always have fresh stock available and ready to be shipped to you as soon as you place your order. More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

 

Cool Pool Industry Tool: An Underwater Drone

Sometimes it would be nice to inspect a main drain without all the scuba gear.

For such occasions, an underwater drone may be just the thing.

Several companies are producing consumer versions of the big, expensive unmanned underwater vehicles used for marine exploration. These smaller and comparatively cheaper units stream high-definition video to your smartphone or tablet – great for capturing footage of coral reefs or for gathering intel at your favorite fishing hole.

OpenROV in Berkeley, Calif. recently released the Trident, a mini submarine that can dive up to 100 meters and is equipped with a high-resolution camera. Likewise, Beijing-based Robosea raised more than $203,000 through Kickstarter for what it is touting as the world’s first wireless bionic fish. It’s called BIKI and features a 4K camera. Both products can be piloted with a smartphone app.

This technology can be more than fun – pool pros see their potential as investigative tools.

“If you’re trying to survey for cracks in the pool close up, you could use that as an option,” said Steve White, a certified diver and owner of Underwater Pool Masters in West Boylston, Mass. A self-described “pool scene investigator,” he’s frequently called upon by realtors to inspect pools for problems.

And for especially large commercial pools, he wouldn’t mind deploying the device to examine a hydrostatic valve or to see if the drain cover requires any attention.

“Maybe something like this could make some judgments,” he said.

Plus, an underwater drone could spare divers from inspecting pools when the water is less than inviting.

“When the water is below 45 degrees, a drone would be great,” said Mike Stinson, a certified diver operating as Mike the Poolman in Folsom, Calif. “But for water over 50 degrees, a diver in a wetsuit can accomplish more with less headaches of breakdowns, remotes, etc.”

Representatives of plaster companies may also find them useful for taking high-res images of defective surface materials.

The cost, however, gives pros pause. The devices retail for upwards of $1,000.

“How many 40-foot deep pools are out there to make a drone feasible? Not many,” Stinson said.

Until they make a drone that can repair rebar, patch plaster and remove drain covers, divers will always be in demand. If nothing else, these aquatic automatons are good for getting photos of underwater repair pros in action.

Original Source: http://www.poolspanews.com/how-to/maintenance/cool-pool-industry-tool-an-underwater-drone_o

Original Author: Nate Traylor

The Significance of Harvesting Fetal Bovine Serum in Animal Biologicals

FBS, otherwise known as, Fetal Bovine Serum is fetal serum from a calf and is blood that is fractioned and remains once the blood is naturally coagulated and separated from the red blood cells by centrifugation. Fetal bovine serum is a product that is utilized in laboratories for research purposes. It is a blood product which surpasses cell culture testing standards and, therefore, is extensively used to promote growth medium.

First Step in Process

FBS is a dairy industry by-product. Just like the majority of other animal serum utilized in cell culture, Fetal Bovine Serum, is created from blood collected from commercial slaughterhouses. The first step of FBS production is the harvesting of blood from a bovine fetus with the help of a closed and isolated selection system. A cardiac puncture is performed on a calf’s fetus during slaughter and the blood is drawn from the bovine fetus after the fetus is removed from cow that has been killed. The blood is refrigerated so that it will clot.

Step 2- Filtration

A process known as centrifuge is then utilized to remove the fibrin clot and the remaining blood cells from the clear yellow (straw) colored serum and, finally, the clear serum is separated from the slotted blood cells. The second step involves filtration which employs a filtration chain with triple sterile 0.1 micrometer membrane filters. After being processed, the sterilized fetal bovine serum is subjected to strict quality control testing by a reputable commercial serum supplier. If the serum clears the quality control testing, it is supplied with a detailed Certificate of Analysis.

Significance of Fetal Bovine Serum

FBS is the most commonly used serum-supplement for the in-vitro cell culture of multi-cell organisms. The reason behind its extensive use is the serum’s low level of antibodies and its high content of embryonic growth promoting factors, which helps the serum to develop versatility in various cell culture applications. There are so many fields in which the cell culture medium growth is considered of great importance, like biotechnology, vaccine production, cloning and in-vitro fertilization. FBS when used in proper concentrations can satisfy specific metabolic requirements for the culture of cells and help it grow because of its high content of hormones, carrier proteins and macromolecular proteins. The embryonic stem cells are transferred, by FBS, into the culture medium which leads to growth of the cells.

Moreover, many vaccines available in the market today are produced using FBS for cell culture growth medium. For instance vaccines that protect against viruses utilize fetal bovine serum. Recently, several experiments are being conducted in an attempt to clone animal tissues and within the field of biotechnology; FBS is often employed in these experiments.

You will find that FBS is offered by several manufacturers in the market, and since cell growth in in-vitro is highly sensitive, customers prefer to check specific batches to ascertain for aptness for their specific cell culture under research. Here, at Innovative Research, we make sure that we provide you with only the highest quality fetal bovine serum and other products that you may need for research purposes. We ensure that we price our products affordably, without compromising on quality.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

The Importance of Human Serum

The human blood is comprised of several important parts all with different purposes. Human blood is made up of plasma, human serum, red blood cells and white blood cells. Red blood cells are the cells that carry oxygen to all parts in the body while white blood cells are the cells that fight against diseases and foreign bodies.

Plasma and human serum are similar but the greatest difference is the clotting factors. Fibrinogen is a substance that is essential for blood clotting to take place. When human serum and plasma are separated from the blood, plasma retains the fibrinogen element while human serum constitutes the part of blood without fibrinogen.

Human serum thus constitutes water which is dissolved with hormones, minerals, proteins and carbon dioxide. Human serum is an important source of electrolytes.

Why is human blood split up?

When an individual donates blood, this blood is separated into different parts so that it can be given to different patients with specific needs. Blood is separated into red blood cells, white blood cells and proteins. Blood proteins constitute serum albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and plasma. For instance, if a patient is suffering from liver failure or has problems with blood clotting, he may receive blood plasma which has clotting factors. The human serum is the remainder of blood after the clotting factors of fibrinogen have been removed and it contains proteins such as albumin and globulins.

Functions of human serum

The human serum is a circulating carrier of exogenous and endogenous liquids in the blood. It allows substances to stick to the molecules within the serum and be buried within it. Human serum thus helps in the transportation of fatty acids and thyroid hormones which act on most of the cells found in the body.

Thyroid hormones are essential to the proper development and functioning of the body because they help to regulate bone growth and maturation, carry out protein synthesis and increase the body’s basal metabolic rate. Human serum also helps transport other hormones which are fat soluble.

Due to its unique role as a circulating carrier, human serum is used in the protein binding of many drugs to facilitate drug distribution within the body. Human serum is used to distribute antibiotics in the body and albumin allows the curable substances in the antibiotics to be bind and carried out throughout the body.

The human off-the-clot serum is the serum that has been allowed to coagulate naturally after collection and has not been exposed to any anticoagulants. The human off-the-clot serum is ideal for metabolic studies because it is available in the original transfer packs straight from individual donors.

Human AB serum is collected from type AB donors and it lacks antibodies against blood type A and B antigens. Human AB serum is used in cell therapy applications and transplantation and tissue engineering.

Human complement serum is a complex mixture of serum proteins which are activated when antibodies in an immune animal interact with corresponding antigens. Human complement serum is used for in vitro research only and biocompatibility experiments.

Innovative Research

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Stipulations Importing Animal and Human Biologicals

Biologicals are pharmaceutical products used in healthcare research, diagnosis and prevention for treatment of diseases. These are collected from live cells or tissues such as sera, vaccine, recombinant products, etc. Basic biologicals such as cells, tissues, serums, blood, and sputum samples are used for potential therapeutic, diagnostics and research applications.

Medical and healthcare research on animals and humans involve the import of biologicals, which needs to comply with certain regulations. Maintaining the safety and efficacy of such products is vital. Regulatory bodies have mandated their prior approval to analyze the quality of imported products. It also keeps a check on the sale and trade of these biological research materials as bio-terrorism is a growing threat to every country today.

Import of Animal Biologicals

Animal biologicals such as animal blood, animal plasma, animal serum, and animal tissues are obtained from a wide variety of species, including animal products. These are collected from larger animals that are anti-parasite and antibiotic. Bio-product collection is also requested from smaller animals from controlled colonies. Trade of veterinary biologicals internationally has always been restricted to certain factors such as:

  • Concerns that the imported animal biological could introduce foreign diseases into the country of import.
  • Import decisions as directed by regulatory authorities like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and World Trade Organization (WTO) must be science-based and transparent. In this context, regulatory organizations must weigh the credibility, validity, and risk-based analysis models prior to decision making.

Import of Human Biologicals

Though the human biological material is no longer a part of a living body, yet individual claims of ownership of these products can raise ethical questions. Today, human biological specimens such as human serum, human whole blood, etc are stored in a bio-repository known as the bio-bank. The need for harmonization of multiple standard procedures for lab practices is necessary as there is no one regulatory practice in place. Import of biological materials requires permission from the authority; however, new rules have eased the import and export of such samples. This will only fasten the transfer process to recipient countries.

New Rules to Relax Import Policies

Research centers and biotech companies can relax as the government has now decided to bring changes in the stringent import policies. It will initiate a hassle-free and time saving way to import and export biological samples. As per the new mandate, the research organization must file a self-certification with the customs authority. It includes a necessary declaration that the applicant organization will follow all the procedures for safe transfer and disposal of biological samples. Only after complying with the import regulations concerning biological research materials can the regulatory body allows the transfer of these products for further research.

Research Bodies Welcome Move

Research experts understand the value of time saving biological transfer of materials such as animal serum, animal plasma, human blood, and more. Biotechnological research organizations are excited about the move brought about by international regulatory bodies. Moreover, these research companies are concerned about complying with the self-certification procedure to get benefited from the new relaxed rules for the import of biologicals. This will not only reduce time spent in sending applications, but will also save money and manpower required with follow-up procurements and obtaining approvals.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Xenotransplantation and the Future of Medicine

Xenotransplantation is a concept which originated a century back. It involves the transport of animal tissues and organs into human beings if there is need to replace a certain organ or to cure a disease. Back then it was considered morally provocative to commit such scientific experiments but now this practice is more in process.

Nowadays, it is considered to be an ‘efficient method’ to solve the critical problem of organ unavailability. Patients today need a considerate amount of organ Transplantations, kidney being the highest; adding to the list are Liver, Heart, Lungs, and Brain.

The Inadequate Availability of Human Donors

  • One human can save up to 8 lives but the person has to be dead in order to donate.
  • Not everyone decides to donate and most importantly not everybody is healthy enough to give their organs. This challenge creates a huge problem and it is one of the major concerns in the field of contemporary medicine.
  • The department of health faces a grave challenge to tackle the issue of organ failure which is not a big problem if an organ is present beforehand to replace the damaged one.

The Background of Xenotransplantation

The demand for animal tissues and organs is increasing day by day. Lately, a few experiments have been carried out in the US and Europe. These trials are largely used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease using Pig fetal neural cells. A similar action was being processed in New Zealand, which, after some altercations is now being conducted in Mexico.

The First Successful Transplantation

Xenotransplantation started in 1963 with the successful transplantation of a chimpanzee kidney into thirteen humans. Only one out of the 13 patients survived for almost nine months and died of a different cause. These kinds of experiments have been conducted largely over the past 50 years and all have received mixed outcomes.

Obstacles circling Xenotransplantation

There were some key obstacles that came to light during the research and experimentation. Below are a vast number of challenges that include infectious disease dangers and the requirement of monitoring for longer periods of time.

  1. Organs of Primates

Animal tissues of Primates are eluded for these kinds of trials to avoid the risk of viruses, the reason being their close relationship to human anatomy.

  1. Failure to Recognize Animal Tissue

The main obstacle founded during animal biological research was that human body refused to recognize animal tissues and attacked them, considering them as ‘foreign’ and dangerous.

  1. No Trivial Recovery

Another concern is when operated; the human body did not heal completely and in some cases showed little signs of significant success.

  1. Campaigns against Xenotransplantation

Beyond all this, animal activists are always in front to raise their voice against using animals for human organ failure treatment.

Advantages of Xenotransplantation

According to Animal Biological Research, a large population of people ignores the fact that there is plenty of uses and advantages of inserting animal tissues or organs. Apart from treating organ failure, it can be used to cure diabetes and permanently eliminating some life-threatening diseases.

Xenotransplantation as a Dire Necessity

Modern medicine needs to expand the possibility of using Animal tissues as a source of transplantation because with changing times, it is going to become a pivotal need. With a limited number of human donors and Healthy organs, the practice of using animal tissues will soon become the first priority of most medical personnel.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

A Better Understanding Of Human Biologicals

Single Donors give a selfless amount of either their blood or its components like plasma, serum, and platelets. Pooled or random donation occurs when two or more human combine to donate the components of blood to help others.

Components of Human Blood

Human blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, serum, and plasma. The main difference between white blood cells and red blood cells is the presence of hemoglobin in the former and absence of it in the latter. Plasma, a yellow liquid has the greatest volume in blood i.e. 55%, while serum has the lowest one.

Plasma and serum are usually used for different tests; however, both are further used for additional purposes. Plasma separation from blood takes more time than the separation of serum. Also, in case of plasma, the division requires anticoagulants.

Pooled and Single Serum

Serum does not possess coagulating factors. The serum, a tiny leftover in blood, is collected from single human donors and then pooled under proper scientific regulations. The minimum age to donate is 18. >Single Human Serum that contains antibodies is used for the diagnosis and treatment of many infectious diseases as well as immunotherapy.

Pooled and Single Plasma

Pooled Plasma consists of change plasma, acquired from more than 30 human donors. Pooling is a phenomenon in which plasma (separated from blood) donated by a number of human donors is mixed together. There are many companies that purify Human Plasma and turn it into life-saving drugs (that must be prescribed by licensed doctors) for the treatment of cancers and immune disorders as well.

During a plasma aphaeresis donation, the blood is collected by a machine which separates the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and returns the red blood cells and/or platelets back to the donor.

Human Pooled plasma is used for the treatment of patients who have decreased blood cells. Included in the modern vital drug list by World health organization, new frozen plasma is used in hemophilia B. It is also used to treat individuals who genetically lack the components that are deemed necessary for blood clotting.

Pooled and Single Platelets

In case of platelets, Single donation occurs when a single person donates blood, goes through a process of aphaeresis where the machine separates the platelets and sends the blood back to the donor. This series is repeated several times and the required amount of platelets are obtained from one single donor.

Sometimes it becomes vital to collect blood from many donors. After collection, platelets from each donor are combined for further use. These are termed as pooled platelets. This method is more effective and fast than pooled donor where one unit of a single donor is equivalent to 6-8 units of pooled donor platelets.

Single donors also have a lesser chance of carrying other components such as Red Blood Cells. They are often collected against any special need that is why they have a lesser chance of getting wasted. Moreover, platelets from single donors can be transfused to any blood group.

Innovative Research is a US based, worldwide distributor of a vast array of animal and human biological products ranging from human serum to cyno monkey plasma.  You can find out more about these valuable research materials by visiting our website at https://www.innov-research.com or by calling us direct at 888.660.6866.